孙文远,杨琴.环境规制对就业的影响——基于我国“两控区”政策的实证研究[J].审计与经济研究,2017,(5):
环境规制对就业的影响——基于我国“两控区”政策的实证研究
  
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中文关键词:  环境规制  就业  双重差分  “两控区”政策  行业异质性  就业效应  劳动力转移
英文关键词:environmental regulation  employment  difference in differences  TCZ policy  industry heterogeneity  employment effect  labor forces transfer
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孙文远,杨琴 南京审计大学 经济与贸易学院江苏 南京211815 
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中文摘要:
      环境规制对就业的影响主要通过产出效应和要素替代效应两个渠道体现。以1994年至2009年我国287个地级以上城市为样本,使用DID方法来估计“两控区”政策对就业的影响效应。从全样本城市角度分析,我国实施的“两控区”政策总体上不利于城市总就业水平的提高,对第二产业就业水平的负面影响主要来自于SO2控制区,对第三产业就业水平的负面影响主要来自于酸雨控制区;“两控区”政策的实施为城市职工平均工资带来正面影响,这种影响主要来自于酸雨控制区。最后从政府对于环境规制工具选择优化、企业的产业技术创新和高技能人才培养三个方面提出了一些可行性建议。
英文摘要:
      The impact of environmental regulation on employment is mainly manifested through two channels:output effect and factor substitution effect.In this paper,we use the DID method to estimate the effect of the TCZ policy on the employment of 287 cities in China from 1994 to 2009.From one perspective of the whole sample,the TCZ policy implemented in our country is not conducive to the improvement of the total employment.The negative impact on the employment of the secondary industry mainly comes from the SO2 control area,as well as the tertiary industry from the acid rain control area.The implementation of this policy has a positive impact on the average wage of urban workers,mainly from the acid rain control area.From another perspective of urban scale,the negative effect on the employment mostly comes from the big cities.The policy makes the migration of labor forces from big cities to small ones,resulting in a significant increase in the employment of small cities in the first and tertiary industries,whereas the effect on the middle cities is mostly insignificant.The policy leads to the improvement of the average wages level in large cities,while the wages of small and medium city workers drop down.Finally,this paper puts forward some feasible suggestions from three aspects:the governments optimal choice of the environment regulation tool,the enterprises technological innovation and the high skill talent cultivation.
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